Animation Art – Terms & Definitions
This means that only a certain amount will be printed of any given edition, as indicated by the number on the canvas print itself and on the certificate of authenticity. The edition size indicates the maximum number that will be reproduced. In addition to the edition limit, Artists Proofs (APs), Printers Proofs (PPs) and Hors d’Commerce (HC) proofs will also be printed, which stand above and beyond the limited edition size.
Serigraph or Seri-cel
A serigraph can most easily be defined as a silk-screen or screen-print, albeit a very sophisticated and labor intensive one. Using the original artwork as the master guide, each color is carefully hand separated into individual elements and burned onto separate screens. The serigraph is then created by screening each color, one by one, onto the substrate (i.e. paper, canvas, etc.) thereby layering all the colors into their proper locations, pass by pass, through a process of physically pushing the ink through the openings in each of the color screens, ultimately combining to build the final image. It is a painstaking, labor intensive and very precise technique, both in the color separating process and in the ability to keep all the screens in proper “registration” with one another throughout the lengthy process of laying down so many individual colors during multiple screen passes. Considered a “traditional” printmaking technique because it is an analog process, serigraphy does not traditionally employ the use of a computer, but rather the careful artistic eye and technique of a master printer and color separator.
A lithograph is a printing method which dates back more than 200 years. It began with “stone lithography,” a process by which an artist’s work was rendered onto a stone and with the use of various solutions that either attract or repel ink, the stone essentially became a stamp which could be pressed or rolled onto paper to transfer the image. The modern version of this technique is a process called “offset lithography”. Before a lithograph can be produced, the image is separated into four colors:Cyan (Blue), Magenta (Red), Yellow and Black (i.e. CMYK). Since most colors in the spectrum originate from these colors, when they are combined to varying degrees, they can reproduce most color that may be found in the original work. For this reason, this process is also commonly referred to as “Four Color Process” printing. Offset lithography operates on a very simple principle: ink (which is oil based) and water don’t mix. First, each of the four separated colors are transferred to their own individual aluminum plate. During the printing process, each plate is dampened first by water, then ink. The ink adheres to the image area, the water to the non-image area. The image on the aluminum plate is then transferred like a stamp onto a rubber blanket creating a negative image, then the rubber blanket is rolled across the paper to create the final positive impression of that color onto the lithograph. When all four colors are layered onto the same paper sheet (and in proper registration) they combine to create the final image.
Giclée printing (pronounced Jee-clay) is commonly considered to be the highest quality digital reproduction technique for fine art. It starts with an extremely high resolution, detailed scanning process during which the image and topography of the original artwork are captured into a digital file. Then the giclée prints are created using specialized printers that literally spray the image onto a substrate such as canvas, paper, etc.